Pinus sp.
Other names: Scots pine - Pinus sylvestris; Nordic Scots pine - Pinus sylvestris; Maritime pine - Pinus pinaster

General description

The growth range of the species is larger than that of any other softwood. It can be found from Scotland to the Pacific Coast of Siberia, from Norway to Spain, from Arctic Siberia to Mongolia and also in the Mediterranean region. The tree grows up to 10 – 30 m (max 40 m). Scots pine wood from the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway) is a species for saw milling with a large volume of lumber produced in Scandinavia. Maritime pine is naturally  growing in the west of the Mediterranean basin and is largely used in France as plantation tree.

Wood description

Pines have distinct yellowish white sapwood and reddish heartwood. Heartwood is clearly demarcated from sapwood. Slow growing trees (esp. Nordic Scots pine) have a fine texture, faster growing ones show medium textures (Maritime pines can also have a coarse texture). Slow grown Nordic pine is very easy to machine to a smooth surface. Knots are tightly fixed in the timber and normally limited in size. The big red knots give a decorative character to the timber. All pines have a lot of resin canals. The wood is soft, medium in weight and has medium density. The strength properties are good. Sawing and machining is easy, gluing can be difficult depending on the percentage of resin in the wood.

Common uses

Pine is a building and construction timber, also used for joinery and interiors (doors, parquets, windows) and furniture.

Physical characteristics
  Scots pine Nordic Scots pine Maritime pine
Density (at 12 % moisture content) 520 kg⁄m3 550 kg⁄m3 550 kg⁄m3
Total longitudinal shrinkage 0.1 – 0.3 % 0.1 – 0.3 % 0.3 – 0.4 %
Total radial shrinkage 4.0 % 4.0 % 4.0 – 4.7 %
Total tangential shrinkage 7.0 % 7.0 % 7.7 – 9.0 %
Equilibrium moisture content
(20° C⁄ 37 % rel. humidity) 7.0 % 7.0 % 7.0 %
(20° C⁄ 83 % rel. humidity) 15.3 % 15.3 % 15.3 %
Mechanical characteristics
Modulus of elasticity under bending 12000 – 10200 N⁄mm2
Modulus of rupture under bending 100 – 80 N⁄mm2
Tension strength 104 N⁄mm2
Compression strength 55 N⁄mm2
Brinell hardness perpendicular to the fibres 20 N⁄mm2
Janka Hardness 2.5 kN
Nail withdrawal strength in N per mm depth and mm diameter 9.0 N⁄mm2
Natural durability and treatability (according to en 350-2)
Fungi Class 3 – 4 moderately to slightly durable
Dry wood borers Heartwood: durable, Sapwood: susceptible
Termites Class S susceptible
Treatability Heartwood: 3 – 4 difficult to extremely difficult to treat
Sapwood: 1 easy to treat 3 – 4 poorly or not permeable

Natural durability is based on mature heartwood. Sapwood must always be considered as non durable against wood destroying agents.